Bio pesticides are compatible with most of the chemical pesticides, fungicides, EPFs and Trichoderma. Bio-pesticides are very unusual group of fungi and are different from plant pathogenic fungi. Chemical fungicides that are able to kill pathogenic fungi are harmless to many species of fungus present in bio-pesticides. Bio-pesticides and most chemical pesticides are compatible and can be mixed together in spray tanks.
There will be no fungal growth on the outside of the dead pest when spray contains EPFs. Pest dies because of internal infection when bio-pesticide is sprayed. To confirm the cause of death incubate dead pests on artificial media in the laboratory to extract the EPF from inside of the cadaver. A practical approach would be to compare two fields : one sprayed with chemicals alone and another sprayed with chemicals + bio pesticides.
Grow the pathogen on artificial media and carry out a dual culture plate test to confirm the efficacy of the bio-fungicide to control the pathogen. A practical approach would be to compare two fields: one sprayed with chemicals alone and another sprayed with chemicals + bio pesticides.
Preparing spray solution by mixing bio-pesticides with chemical pesticides may give synergistic effect and result in better crop protection. That is combined effect is greater than the sum of individual effect. Some farmers are able to reduce the amount of chemicals required by 50% when it is mixed with bio-pesticide. We can overcome the problem of pests developing resistance to chemicals by mixing them with a bio-pesticide.
Bio-pesticide has little or no harmful effects on beneficial insects. Bio-pesticides do not harm the indigenous natural enemies, introduced predatory mites and parasitic wasps.
Many bio-pesticides function by interfering with a pathogen’s ability to infect a susceptible plant either directly through parasitism or indirectly through the production of secondary compounds. Therefore, timing and frequency of application are critical to get the best results out of bio-pesticides. For effective control start the treatment, immediately after the conditions turn favorable for disease development or immediately after the appearance of first symptoms of disease.
- Application at the early stage of the disease.
- Proper spray coverage and frequent application.
- Time of the day selected for spraying.
- Use of adjuvant improves performance in some cases.
When exposed to UV rays from sun or in hot & dry conditions bio-pesticides will remain active for about 12 to 48 hours only. Within this time it has to infect the target pest.
In the absence of the host, the EPF will not establish and grow on leaves.
The soil is the natural habitat for bio-pesticide organism and it may remain active for several months in soil.
Over a period there will be decline in population level due to competition from other microbes and fungus eating soil borne insects. In the absence of optimum population, bio-pesticide microbes may not provide effective protection against soil borne pests and diseases. Therefore regular applications may be necessary to provide crop protection.
Bio-pesticide does not need to be applied in dedicated spray equipment and can even be tank-mixed with most chemical pesticides. Bio-pesticide mixed with chemical pesticides can sometimes provide enhanced synergistic effect for crop protection.
Precision spraying will improve contact with the target pest and makes the EPF effective. Correct volume of spray solution, droplet size, direction of the spray and right time of the day for spray would increase the chances of bio-pesticide spore landing on the target pest. Do not use large sprays of water volumes, which causes applied bio-pesticide to ‘run-off’ from the applied surface.
The presence of organic matter in the soil enhances the efficacy of EPF as it helps in saprophytic growth. For soils with low organic matter content, addition of Multiplex Annapurna/Farm Yard Manure/molasses would increase the efficacy of EPF.
The larvae of many pests (Thrips, Fruit fly, Leaf miner, Fungus gnats, Bollworm, False Codling Moth caterpillar larvae) are normally found only in top soil surface. Therefore soil drenching should be done by the use of high volume sprayers or orchard sprinklers. To increase contact and penetration of the bio-pesticide, fallen fruits, dead leaves and weeds should be removed from soil surface before application. Removal of crop debris will reduce the crop disease inoculums.
When EPF solution is applied through drip irrigation it is more likely to end up near the root zone of the plant and not close to soil pests, which pupate near soil surface. For control of larvae which feed on the roots (snout beetles, vine weevil, etc.) it is ideal to apply them through drip irrigation.
It is advisable to go for routine monthly applications (monthly) in areas where pest incidence is endemic and predictable.
Biofertilizers are carrier based (powder or liquid) preparations containing effective strains of some microorganisms like bacteria, fungi and algae alone or in combination in sufficient count. On being applied on seed, seedling roots or in soil fixes atmospheric nitrogen or solubilizes insoluble phosphate in soil and makes them available to the crops. The biofertilizers are also called as bioinoculants/culture, microbial inoculants or teeka. As per the definition given in Fertilizer Control Order “Biofertilizers means the product containing carrier based (solid or liquid) living microorganisms which are agriculturally useful in terms of nitrogen fixation, phosphorus soubilisation or nutrient mobilization, to increase the productivity of the soil and/or crop”.
Atmosphere is the major source of Nitrogen. Atmospheric air contains about 79% nitrogen in gaseous form. One hectare area column of atmospheric air contains approx. 80,000 Mt of nitrogen. This form of nitrogen (N2) available in air cannot be directly utilized by plants themselves.
The bacterial organisms present in the biofertilizer either fix atmospheric nitrogen or solubilizes insoluble forms of soil phosphate or mobilize potash and Zinc.
The fungal group solubilizes insoluble forms of phosphate present in the Soil and make it available to the crop plants.
The algal group supplies only nitrogen.
`No’. One biofertilizer can supply or make available only one major nutrient.
Yes, biofertilizers are available for all the three major nutrients nitrogen, phosphorus and potash. Even Zn-biofertilizers have also been developed.
Certain bacteria like Rhizobium live inside the root nodules of leguminous plants. These nodules are bacterial houses. While living inside the root nodules, the bacteria get shelter and food material from the plant and fix atmospheric nitrogen which is used by the plants. The plants and bacteria both are mutually benefited and hence it is called symbiotic association.
Nitrogen is available to the leguminous plants mainly through biological nitrogen fixation by the root nodule bacteria called Rhizobium. These bacteria are symbiotic in nature and host specific. Higher yields in legumes can be obtained by exploiting this system.
No. Rhizobium strains are host specific and strain meant for one crop plant cannot be used for other crop plant. Therefore, it is necessary to apply only the specific strain, which is recommended for that crop.
Acetobacter is symbiotic bacteria capable of fixing atmospheric nitrogen by living within the sugar plant. The organism is found in all parts of plant body. The Acetobacter is suitable for sugarcane cultivation.
This bacterial group live partly within the root and partly outside. There is a fair degree of symbiosis between the host and the bacteria. Hence, they are called as Associative Symbiotic bacteria. Azospirillum is an important bacterium in this group, recommended for millets, grass, wheat, maize, sorghum, rice etc.
Certain bacteria live independent of root system of plant and they are capable of fixing nitrogen or solubilising soil phosphate without any symbiotic association and hence they are called non-symbiotic or free-living bacteria.
It is a non-symbiotic nitrogen fixing bacteria, aerobic in nature, recommended for non-leguminous crops like paddy, millets, cotton, tomato, cabbage and other monocotyledonous crops. Azotobacter also produces growth promoting substances like IAA, Gibberellic acid, Cytokinin, Vitamins, certain chelating agents and polysaccharides as reducing and binding agents. Azotobacter performs well, when the soil organic matter content is high.
Azolla is an aquatic floating fern, found in temperate climate and it is suitable for paddy cultivation. The fern appears as a green mat over water, which becomes reddish due to excess anthocyanin pigmentation. The BGA cyanobacteria (Anabaena azollae) present as symbiotic with this fern in the lower cavities actually fixes atmospheric nitrogen. The rate of nitrogen fixed is around 25 kg/ha.
- Pseudomonas striata
- Bacillus Polymyxa/megaterium
- Aspergillus awamori
- Penicillium digitatum
Azolla application can be done in two ways: One – As green manure, where Azolla is grown alone (for two to three weeks) in flooded fields. Once a thick mat is formed, water is drained and Azolla fern is incorporated (10 Mt material) in the field before transplanting paddy. By this method 25-30 kg of biologically fixed nitrogen can be provided to the paddy crop.
In second method 4-5 Q of fresh Azolla is applied in standing water one week after transplanting of paddy. Within 2-3 weeks it will cover the entire water surface and continues to grow along with paddy as dual crop. When plants grow, it dies due to shading and release fixed nitrogen. By this method 25-30 kg of biologically fixed N can be provided to the paddy crop.
The blue green algae are also called as cyanobacteria. This Chlorophyll containing algal organism fixes atmospheric nitrogen. Application of BGA (10 kg/ha) is recommended for flooded paddy as it can survive and multiply easily in standing water. Single application of BGA can provide 15-20 kg of biologically fixed N to the crop.
The phosphate solubilisers produces organic acids like tartaric, fumeric, malic, succinic and acetic acid etc. which solubilise insoluble forms of phosphate present in the soil and make it available to crop plants.
No. They can be applied to and recommended for all crops.
The VAM is Vesicular Arbuscular Mycorrhizal fungi – which possess special structures known as vesicles and arbuscules. VAM is an intercellular, obligate endosymbiont and on establishment on the root system act as extended root system. Besides harvesting moisture from deeper and faraway niches in the soil they also harvest various micronutrients and provide to the host plants.
Yes. Mycorrhizae help in mobilizing insoluble soil phosphates. They further help increasing nutrient uptake (phosphorus as well as zinc).
Biofertilizers are preparations made from nature borne beneficial microorganisms. They are safe for all plants, animals and human beings. Being beneficial to crops and natural nutrient cycles they are not only environment friendly but also help in reducing the use of chemical inputs.
Nitrogen fixing biofertilizers fix atmospheric nitrogen equivalent to the application of 15-35 kg of chemical N, while phosphate solubilizing biofertilizers help crops in taking 15-20 kg of phosphorus/ ha from soil’s insoluble phosphorus pool.
Coating the seed with bio-inoculants is generally known as seed-treatment or bacterisation. It ensures quick germination, fast growth of crop plants, increased yield and better product. It can be done either by dry mix/wet coat or palletizing process. Suspend 200 gm each of nitrogen fixing and PSB in 300- 400 ml of water and mix thoroughly. Pour this slurry on 10 to 12 kg of seed and mix by hands, till all the seeds are uniformly coated.
Biofertilizers can be applied to different crops and plants by three different ways :
Seed treatment Suspend 200 gm each of nitrogen fixing and PSB in 300-400 ml of water and mix thoroughly. Pour this slurry on 10 to 12 kg of seed and mix by hands, till all the seeds are uniformly coated. Dry the treated seeds in shade and sow immediately. For acidic and alkaline soils it is always advisable to use 1 kg of slacked lime or gypsum powder respectively for coating the wet biofertilizer treated seeds.
Seedling root dip treatment: – Suspend 1 to 2 kg each of nitrogen fixing (Azotobacter/Azospirillum) and PSB into just sufficient quantity of water (5-10 lit depending upon the quantity of seedlings required to be planted in one acre). Dip the roots of seedlings in this suspension for 20-30 min before transplanting. In case of paddy make a sufficient size bed (2mt x 1.5mt x 0.15mt) in the field, fill it with 5 cm of water and suspend 2 kg each of Azospirillum and PSB and mix thoroughly. Now dip the roots of seedlings in this bed for 8-12 hours (overnight) and then transplant.
Soil treatment: – For soil treatment depending upon the total number of plants per acre 2-4 kg of Azotobacter/Azospirillum and 2-4 kg of PSB are required for one acre. Mix two types of biofertilizer in 2-4 liters of water separately and sprinkle this suspension on two separate heaps of 50-100 kg of compost. Mix the two heaps separately and leave for incubation overnight. After 12 hours, mix the two heaps together. For acidic soils mix 25 kg lime with this mixture. In plantation crops apply this mixture at the root zones by dibbling. In some field crops the mixture is broadcast evenly in the moist field and mixed with soil just before sowing. In sugarcane the biofertilizer manure is to be applied in furrows near the root zone, after 30- 40 days of planting and covered with soil. In potato it is to be applied after 20 days of planting or at the time of earthing-up operations. In case of sugarcane and potato, if setts/tubers are not treated with plant protection chemicals then biofertilizer compost mixture can be applied in furrows immediately before plantingSeed/Seedling/Tuber/ sets treatment – most effective, failing which soil inoculation better than nothing. Application dose: -200 gm BF (one packet) for 10-12 kg seeds, treatment, for one hectare 5-10 kg BF+50-60 Kg soil/ compost (soil application) for one hectare 10 kg BGA (wet land paddy) for one hectare10 Q Azolla (wet land paddy) for one hectare.
- Application accuracy and even fertilizer application.
- No wastage or under application.
- Ease of storage and handling.
- Increased efficiency and wider operating windows.
You can use your conventional farm sprayer to apply liquid fertilizers, however you will need to fit suitable nozzles or stream bars.
Over 50 different grades of liquid fertilizer are available and only the most popular of these are listed in our literature or on the website.
For more information on specific grade availability please contact our Sales Team.
Any product sprayed onto crops can potentially cause some scorch if applied to a stressed crop. To avoid this do not apply to stressed crops or under hot condition in bright sunlight. Typically early morning or evenings are the safest times.
A wide range of crop protection products and micronutrients can be tank mixed with Multiplex foliar liquid fertilizers.
The main advantage of a compound fertilizer is that all the nutrients are contained in each granule or prill. This means that there is no risk of segregation of the different nutrients during handling or loading as can often occur with blends. Each prill or granule has a uniform size, shape and density which means they can be easily spread uniformly across the whole bout width, unlike blends where there is inevitably a compromise when it come to spreader settings. The advantage of this a much more uniform and even distribution of all the nutrients across the field avoiding under or over fertilization leading to increases in both crop yield and quality.
It is advised to keep cattle, sheep, goats or other livestock out of fields, until granules or prills have fully dissolved and are no longer visible. If sufficient moisture is present fertilizer granules or prills will typically dissolve in 3-4 days, often much sooner, but under dry conditions relying on soil moisture and dew this can take longer.
It is often hard to diagnose a micronutrient deficiency in the field as often a crop may be struggling with a deficiency before symptoms are visible. Contact plant nutrient expert.
If you suspect a micronutrient deficiency the only certain way to diagnose or confirm is to send a tissue sample for laboratory analysis.
pH is a measure of soil acidity (sourness) or soil alkalinity (sweetness). A number expresses pH on a scale from 0 to 14. A neutral reading is 7. Any reading below 7 represents an acid soil and the lower the number the more acidic the soil. Any number above 7 indicates an alkaline condition and alkalinity increases as the number on the scale increases.
Optimum pH will vary from plant to plant, but a pH between 5.0 to 7.0 is generally accepted as the best range for most plants.
The pH of the soil governs what nutrients are available to plants. If the soil pH is above or below the recommended range (5.5 – 7.0), nutrients may not be soluble (absorbable by plants) or they may be so soluble that they become Phytotoxic. Therefore, a plant can show signs of nutrient deficiencies or toxicity even when the correct amount of fertilizer is applied to that plant.
Lime is added to soil when a soil test determines that the soil pH is too acid. Lime reacts with water and releases calcium that neutralizes the acidity of the soil, thus raising the pH of the soil.
Dolomite is a type of lime. There are various forms of lime used to increase soil pH. Standard lime contains calcium. Dolomitic lime contains calcium and magnesium. Whenever lime is recommended, dolomite is suggested since it will adjust the soil pH and also add magnesium which is usually deficient in indian sandy soil.
Alkaline soils are a result of natural soil characteristics or excessive applications of lime. The pH of over-limed soils can be lowered by adding elemental sulfur. Never apply more than 3 to 5 Kgs of sulfur per 1000 square feet per application. Iron sulfate, aluminum sulfate, or ammonium sulfate also has soil acidifying properties. Naturally alkaline or calcareous soils are common in coastal counties. It is difficult, if not impossible to lower the pH of these soils. Nutrient deficiencies in plants growing on calcareous soils should be treated by nutrient foliar sprays. Better yet, use plants which are adapted to coastal conditions (i.e. alkaline soils and/or salt.
A soil pH test will tell you how acidic or alkaline your soil is. It will not tell you the fertilizers you need, what diseases are present in the sample, or any other reasons why plants won’t grow in an area. Those who want a more complete soil test can send samples to the Multiplex soil testing laboratory in Bangalore. This test measures and makes recommendations for pH, Nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, magnesium and calcium etc.,
Yes, Multiplex has range of products to correct soil PH viz: SAMRUDDHI, SAMRUDDHI GOLD AND SAMRUDDHI PLUS.
Multiplex SAMRUDDHI & Multiplex SAMRUDDHI Plus/Multiplex SAMRUDDHI GOLD
This contains secondary nutrients such as Calcium, Magnesium and Sulphur in larger amounts and micronutrients like Zinc, Copper, Iron, Boron, Manganese and Molybdenum in traces.
It rectifies soil pH and improves soil structure.
Magnesium increases the rate of photosynthetic activity and sulphur reduces salinity of the soil.
This can be used in all field crops, fruits, vegetables, and plantation crops etc,
Apply @ 50 kg/acre at the time of sowing/ transplant (field crops).
For plantation crops apply @ 150 – 250 g per plant during May/June & in the months of August/ September.
Multiplex SAMRUDDHI Plus/ Multiplex SAMRUDDHI GOLD – 10 kg, 25 kg, 40 kg & 50 k
Compost contains sources of organic nutrients that do not have some of the drawbacks of synthetic fertilizers such as acid based phosphorus and urea. Therefore the nutrients within the compost are available for a relatively long period of time for plants and microbes. In addition the compost provides a source of carbon, an array of beneficial microbes and improves soil structure. This can lead to increased yields due to reduced plant disease, and reduce synthetic fertilizer costs.
No. All composted material reaches in excess of 55 degrees Celsius for weeks at a time, thereby destroying weed seeds. In effect the material is pasteurised. This also has a benefit of deactivating other potential pathogens that can be present in the feed stocks used to make the compost.
The rate of compost application is usually around 3 tonnes per hectare. Reapplication should occur every year, but every 2 to 3 years will still provide benefits. This ensures that soil carbon is being increased, as well as the other benefits of the compost such as nutrients, water holding capacity, improving soil structure and microbiology.
Using a compost spreader is an efficient way in which to efficiently spread large volumes of compost over a wide area. The compost should be mixed into the top layers of the soil using standard agricultural machinery.
Compost and organic manure products are safe to use, however precautions should be used as with handling all biological material. The compost products have all undergone pasteurization excess of 55 degrees Celsius for weeks at a time, thereby deactivating both plant and animal pathogens. However, it is recommended that people handling compost, especially with medical conditions, undertaking horticultural and agricultural activities wear a mask and gloves. These issues can arise from soil not containing compost, so in effect is very rare.